REFERENCES: Source of all data summarized for the watershed.
Literature Cited in Methods:
Baker, J.A. and S.A. Foster. 1992. Estimating density and abundance of endemic fishes in Hawaiian streams. Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources, State of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI.
Fitzsimons, J.M., J.E. Parham and R.T. Nishimoto. 2004. Stream ecosystems. Pp. 103-106 In: D. Mueller-Dombois et al., eds. Biodiversity assessment of tropical island ecosystems. The PABITRA Manual. (www.botany.edu/hawaii.edu/pabitra)
Hawaii Cooperative Park Service Unit. 1990. Hawaii Stream Assessment: A preliminary appraisal of Hawaii stream resources. Report R84. Prepared for the Commission on Water Resource Management. 294 pp.
Higashi, G.R. 1991-1996. Management of a database on the occurrence, abundance, and distribution of native freshwater species. Native freshwater species and stream ecosystem studies. Job Progress Report, Proj. No.l F-14-R-16, 17, 18, 19, 20. Hawaii DAR, DLNR.
Higashi, G.R. and R.T. Nishimoto. 2007. The point quadrat method: a rapid assessment of Hawaiian Streams. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Cultural and Environmental Studies 3: 305-313.
Kuamo'o, D.G.K., G.R. Higashi and J.E. Parham. 2007. Structure of the Division of Aquatic Resources survey database and use with a geographic information system. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Cultural and Environmental Studies 3: 315- 322.
Parham, J.E. 2002. Spatial models of Hawaiian streams and stream fish habitats. Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana State University. 144 pp.
Parham, J.E. 2005. Survey techniques for freshwater streams on oceanic islands: important design considerations for the PABITRA project. Pacific Science 59: 283-292.
Parham, J.E. and E.K. Lapp. 2006. Reach Classification for Hawaiian Streams. Standardized GIS methodology for determining reaches. Digital product.
Strahler, A.N. 1952. Dynamic basis of geomorphology. Geological Society of America Bulletin 63: 923 – 938.